Philip IV of Spain

(1605-1665)
   Philip IV was the son and heir of Philip III of Spain. He was a more capable ruler than his father but, like him, he relied on a minister to run the monarchy. The individual he chose was Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, Count of Olivares, whom he had to dismiss in 1643 after several political and economic failures. Philip's priorities also matched those of his father: to uphold the Catholic faith against the threat of Protestantism, to assert Spanish control over the Dutch United Provinces, and to extend the Hapsburg dominion. However, these priorities could not be attained. In 1640, Portugal revolted against Spain, and Philip lost his position as their monarch. He had no choice but to recognize the independence of the Dutch Provinces in 1648 when the Peace of Westphalia was negotiated, and, in the following year, Spain lost Roussillon and part of the Spanish Netherlands to France in the Peace of the Pyrenees. While his realm declined politically and economically, artistically it experienced its golden age, mainly thanks to the presence of Diego Velazquez in his court. Also present at his court were Peter Paul Rubens, Juan Bautista Maino, and Juan Martinez Montañéz.

Historical dictionary of Renaissance art. . 2008.

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  • Philip II of Spain — (1527 1598)    The son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who appointed him ruler of Naples and Sicily in 1554, of the Netherlands in 1555, and of Milan and Spain in 1556. Upon Charles death (1558), Philip also inherited the rulership of the Spanish …   Dictionary of Renaissance art

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  • Descendants of Philip V of Spain — Philip V of Spain The descendants of Philip V of Spain, Bourbon monarch of the Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia and Kingdom of Sicily are numerous. He had two wives; by his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy he had two… …   Wikipedia

  • Cultural depictions of Philip II of Spain — Philip II of Spain has inspired artistic and cultural works for over four centuries, as the most powerful ruler in the Europe of his day, and subsequently a central figure in the Black Legend of Spanish power. The following list covers… …   Wikipedia

  • List of descendants of Philip V of Spain — The descendants of Philip V of Spain, Bourbon monarch of the Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of Naples, Kingdom of Sardinia and Kingdom of Sicily are numerous. He had two wives; by his first wife Maria Luisa of Savoy he had two children. After the… …   Wikipedia

  • Monument to Philip IV of Spain — West side …   Wikipedia

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